"Le monde n'est qu'un amas de taches confuses, jetées sur le vide par un peintre insensé, sans cesse effacées par nos larmes." Nouvelles Orientales - Yourcenar

Publié dans : Philosophie

le 10/10/09

http://milkymoon.cowblog.fr/images/Livres/memecee.jpgLettre à Ménécée
Epicure
IIIème av. JC

Quatrième de couverture
Le secret du bonheur ? C'est ce que promet Epicure dans la Lettre à Ménécée. N'ayons peur ni des dieux, ni de la mort, ni de la douleur ou de la mauvaise fortune. Recherchons le plaisir, parce qu'il est conforme à la nature. Mais pour ce faire, nous devons nous libérer des idées fausses que produisent en nous les préjugés, les opinions courantes ou les croyances supersticieuses. Il faut donc recourir à la raison et à l'exercice pour suivre la nature. Telle est précisément la tâche de la philosophie : elle définit la discipline rationnelle nécessaire au bonheur.
La Lettre à Ménécée, texte fondateur de l'épicurisme, exercera une influence décisive dans l'Antiquité comme dans la pensée moderne et contemporaine : sur le poète romain Lucrèce, mais aussi sur tous ceux qui revendiquent une éthique réconciliant le plaisir et la raison.

Avis
Lecture intéressante pour une entrée en matière avec la philosophie. Voici quelques idées que j'ai notées au cours de ma lecture (pas de lien entre chaque idée).
* Selon Epicure, philosopher c'est assurer la santé de l'âme, philosopher c'est chercher le bonheur. Je ne pense pas que le but de la philo soit uniquement de rechercher le bonheur.
* Il faut montrer une absence de crainte devant ce qui va arriver.
* Qui sont les dieux épicuriens ? Ils sont incorruptibles et bienheureux, et d'après les hommes sont à l'origine des malheurs et des bienfaits.
* A propos de la mort : elle ne nous affecte pas matériellement, ne fait pas souffrir car on n'a plus de sensation. Sur ça aussi, je suis moyennenement d'accord, on peut mourir dans la souffrance. Après ça dépend à partir de quel instant on définit qu'on est mort.
* Epicure ne comprend pas pourquoi certaines personnes veulent fuire la vie. Le plaisir est pour lui le début et la fin de "la vie bienheureuse" (ou bonheur).
* Il établit une classification des besoins humains : certains sont indispensables, d'autres sont utiles, d'autres inutiles.
* Tout plaisir est un bien mais tout plaisir n'est pas à choisir s'il engendrera une souffrance encore plus grande (et réciproquement).
* Le mot "ataraxie" : absence de troubles.
* Les vertus procurent une vie agréable. Il dit même qu'une vie de prudence est préférable à une vie à philosopher.
* Au final il a dressé le modèle du sage en quatre points : il n'a peur ni de la mort, ni des dieux, ni de la douleur et privilégie le plaisir.

En résumé : Intéressant, facilement compréhensible, j'ai pris plaisir à découvrir les pensées de ce philosophe de l'Antiquité bien que je ne les rejoigne pas toutes.

Vos élucubrations

Ajouter

Par Raison-et-sentiments le 21/12/10
Je viens de la lire, ainsi que La lettre sur l'univers, et comme tu dis c'est très intéressant et ça permet de se rendre compte que comme on le croit tous (ou en tout cas moi) l'épicurisme n'est pas l'éloge du plaisir à outrance :)
Bref d'accord avec ce que tu dis et je lirais bien ses maximes maintenant.
Par Akkantha le 10/1/11
Aaah cool, enfin quelqu'un qui l'a lu :). Exactement l'épicurisme c'est bien plus complexe et à mon avis les gens font un raccourci des pensées d'Epicure. Je serais bien tentée par ses maximes aussi !
Tout le monde connait le terme "sosie", mais on n'emploie moins celui d' "amphitryon", qui désigne l'hôte chez qui on mange.
Ce que j'ai aimé dans ce livre, c'est qu'on ne sait pas de quoi est accusé le personnage, du coup on ne prend pas parti dans le fait si oui ou non il mérite d'être condamné à mort. Le condamné ne conteste pas qu'il est coupable
Je pense que l'intérêt de la pièce réside surtout dans la mise en scène.
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